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AJA Ki Pro Mini review

ki pro miniThe Ki Pro Mini is made by AJA and is a compact professional digital recorder designed to be attached to any camcorder that has either a professional HD/SD-SDI out or a HDMI output. With the Ki Pro Mini it is possible to improve the image quality by recording to a superior codec (Apple ProRes) with higher bitrates over the default codec and bitrate of the camcorder. The Ki Pro Mini gives you a file-based solid-state workflow via the two CF card slots. The Ki Pro Mini is basically a miniature version of the larger Ki Pro, with some key differences including a 10-bit broadcast quality hardware up/down/cross converter, and the larger size allows larger drives and RS-22 enables deck-like features with FCP and more. Of course the Ki Pro Mini is considerably cheaper too.

For the record, I used a Panasonic AF101 camcorder for this review and for the tests involved.

The AJA Ki Pro Mini is a compact digital recorder that has been designed to mount easily onto your camcorder, either via a cold shoe, the rear end of the matte box rails, or onto your tripod. The Ki Pro Mini can of course be mounted to a wide range of items beyond the three I’ve mentioned here via the Mini Mounting Plate – you can download a detailed guide from www.aja.com. The Ki Pro Mini allows you to improve the image quality of your camcorder. As long as your camcorder has a HD/SDI output or a HDMI output to allow it to be connected to the Ki Pro Mini then you can take advantage of what it has to offer. Most modern camcorders (especially those costing between £4,000 and £20,000) use 4:2:0 colour space with bitrates of either 24Mbps or 35Mbps. The more expensive end of the scale sometimes use 4:2:2 colour space (which is superior to 4:2:0) and possibly 50Mbps; this varies between manufacturers.

aja ki pro mini

The Ki Pro Mini is ideally suited to HD camcorders such as Sony’s EX1, EX3, PMW-350, F3, Canon’s XL and XF series and Panasonic’s AF101, JVC’s GY-HM750 and other similar size/price camcorders that have a HD/SDI output or HDMI output.

Camcorders like these mentioned above can benefit hugely from the Ki Pro Mini; depending on the application and final output of the production.

The reason camcorders such as Sony’s EX1 and Panasonic’s AF101 can benefit from the Ki Pro Mini is because these two camcorders’ built in recording codec records to 4:2:0 colour space to moderate bitrates; Sony EX1 is 35Mbps with its SxS codec and the Panasonic AF101 is 24Mbps with its AVCHD codec. By attaching the Ki Pro Mini via either of these camcorder’s HD/SDI output it is possible to record to a superior colour space of 4:2:2 and to a much higher bitrate of anything between 45Mbs up to 220Mbps depending on the one you chose in the Ki Pro Mini’s menus.

So how does this work? The HD/SDI output of your camcorder will usually output an uncompressed video signal at 4:2:2 colour space as either 8-bit or 10-bit.

Recording to 4:2:2 colour space instead of 4:2:0 allows the Ki Pro Mini to record more colour information than the camcorder could in 4:2:0, and by recording at a higher bitrate allows the Ki Pro Mini to record more image information with less compression artefacts; but there are more advantages too; see next section.

aja ki pro mini

The simple answer to this is yes and no. If you are simply recording a locked-off shot of a vase of flowers and you play back the footage directly from your camcorder to the TV, or do a basic edit of the vase of flowers with no grading and straight to a DVD encode, then it is unlikely that you will notice any difference between footage shot on the camcorder when compared to footage shot on the Ki Pro Mini.

However, the advantage comes in other areas, for example, if you are shooting something with lots of movement, or codec-testing footage such as white-water rafting or panning shots across a football pitch, both of which will push 35Mbps beyond its limits showing up all sorts of compression artefacts. In these instances, using a higher bitrate on the Ki Pro Mini will show you a significant improvement in image quality.

But the shooting stage isn’t the only place that can take advantage of Ki Pro Mini shot footage with higher bitrates and better colour space. Grading in postproduction will benefit greatly from 4:2:2 colour space with higher bitrates, why? Because if you push and pull colours and exposure around in postproduction, regular 4:2:0 footage shot at 24 or 35Mbps will fall apart and degrade almost straight away right in front of your eyes with noise and other artefacts immediately becoming visible and horribly apparent. If you shoot on the Ki Pro Mini at 4:2:2 at a higher bitrate, you will be able to push and pull colours and exposure around in postproduction with little or no loss in image quality; colour graders will love you for this.

But there is more; read the next section.

nigel with ki pro mini

Yes, it most certainly is. As I’m based in England, UK, I’m going to use the BBC for the benchmark here; the rest of the world should too, but that’s another story.

The BBC have very strict guidelines as to what camcorders and kit can be used in a production that is going to go out on air; especially for the BBC HD channel. 4:2:0 colour space is typically rejected and not up to scratch for the BBC, so too are low to moderate bitrates such as 24 and 35Mbps.

Many of you might know that the BBC recently approved the Panasonic AF101 camcorder for HD acquisition, but with the caveat that you do not use its built-in AVCHD codec at 24Mbps. Instead you have to use an add-on digital recorder in 4:2:2 colour space and with a minimum bitrate of 50Mbps. With 4:2:2 colour and a 50Mbps bitrate, the BBC are happy.

Note: the BBC's 50Mbps minimum requirement is for Long GOP. The Pro Mini uses the ProRes codec, which is IntraFrame. The IntraFrame equivalent bitrate is 100Mbps, this is because with IntraFrame there is no Long GOP structure, intend each frame is looked at individually.

So, bolt a Ki Pro Mini to the matte box rails behind your Panasonic AF101, Sony EX1 etc, set its bitrate to a minimum of 50 and away you go. The Ki Pro Mini has various bitrate options from 45Mbps right up to 220Mbps with options in-between. For the BBC’s HD requirements, I would suggest setting the Ki Pro Mini to it’s 422 LT setting, which is 100Mbps; more on this later. In fact I’d say 100Mbps will be fine for pretty much everything you are going to shoot, be it locked-off, medium movement, or fast sports water action; 100Mbps will cover most. Also, you can record a lot more to the card at 100Mbps than you can at 220Mbps, the latter is way too much headroom in my opinion and simply a waste of space on the cards. However, digital cinema filmmakers might require 220Mbps; context is the key here.

Just a note - Apple considers ProRes 422 and ProRes 422 (HQ) codecs the optimal choices. The lower bitrate Apple ProRes 422 (LT) is also considered viable in some cases where the bitrate is the primary concern. You might want to refer to the Apple whitepaper which states this about Apple ProRes 422 (Proxy): "Apple ProRes 422 (Proxy) is intended for draft-mode or preview uses where low data rates are required, yet full-resolution video is desired."

After speaking to AJA, they consider the "sweet spot" to be Apple ProRes 422 SQ (Standard Quality) 140Mbps. Most shooters will be happy with the LT 100Mbps quality setting.

If you want to read the Apple whitepaper in pdf format click here to download it: Apple ProRes white paper

ki pro mini panasonic af101

You could buy a Ki Pro Mini if you (or your editor) do any kind of colour grading or exposure matching in post, even if it is only minimal. If you do any sports or fast action shooting, or if you shoot the type of footage that is challenging to 35Mbps and 4:2:0 colour space such as moving water or panning shots across grass for example.

You could buy a Ki Pro Mini if you are an independent feature filmmaker who has every intention of showing your film in a cinema, or other large screen, where compression artefacts are easier to see as they are magnified so hugely.

You could buy a Ki Pro Mini if you are a documentary filmmaker who intends shooting for broadcast to TV; it will be a requirement as per the BBC stuff earlier in this review. The reason it is vital for broadcast to TV is tenfold. The BBC doesn’t just demand a minimum of 50Mbps with 4:2:2 colour space for no reason. If you don’t colour grade and the footage is lacking in much movement and you just view the footage directly from camcorder to TV, you won’t really see any difference. But, if you are shooting a doc for TV and even if you shoot perfectly with perfect exposure and it doesn’t need any grading (which is unlikely), by the time the BBC put your final edit through several ‘digital washes’ i.e. move it over to another broadcastable codec, send it off up into space, bounce it off a satellite dish and send it back down to earth to people’s TV sets, it will degrade considerably. If it was shot at 24 or 35Mbps in 4:2:0 colour space, what finally hits the TV screen in HD will barely be a recognisable picture with compression artefacts all over the place. However, a bitrate of 50 or 100Mbps in 4:2:2 colour space will withstand these digital washes and when it finally hits the TV screen, it will still look amazing.

Finally, you could buy a Ki Pro Mini if you do any kind of colour grading in postproduction and you are simply burning off to DVD for a master ready for the duplicators. Ki Pro Mini shot footage will almost certainly look better, as 4:2:2 has so much more colour information than 4:2:0 and it shows after even a single digital wash encode to DVD. ProRes was designed for all the demands of post: multiple layers and effects heavy rendering. LongGOP codecs are notorious for going to pieces when subjected to the rigours of rendering.

ki pro miniBUILD QUALITY
Ok, here we go. Most DVuser readers will probably know that I don’t forgive shoddy build quality and cheap parts and lots of plastic that can crack and break etc. Well, the AJA Ki Pro Mini is built like a brick proverbial house, it is solid; rock solid. It is obvious that AJA have built this for use in the field by professionals. When you pick it up, it really does feel like you are holding a house brick and if you do what I did and attach not one, but two AJA mounting plates (otherwise known as cheese graters) on each side you will not only have two sides to attached things such as a V-lock plate, but also a matte box rail adaptor, and on top of that, it adds even more solidity to the entire unit. This thing almost has a military feel about it; in fact holding the Ki Pro Mini brings a famous line from the Guy Richie film ‘Snatch’ to mind. It is the scene where Boris the Blade is selling a gun to Tommy and Boris says (think Russian accent here) “Heavy is good, heavy is reliable, if it doesn’t work, you can always hit him with it.”

The Ki Pro Mini has inputs and outputs in abundance. Of course you have HD/SDI inputs to receive the signal coming from your camcorder. This is a professional BNC-type socket that is secure and will not pop out during a shoot. The fact that the Ki Pro Mini uses professional lockable BNC-type HD/SDI inputs and outputs puts it firmly in the professional camp. There is no way a BNC socket is going to ‘pop’ out during a shoot as they bayonet in place and lock. Consumer HDMI sockets on the other hand are for domestic TVs at home and Sony Playstations etc, certainly not professional video equipment in the field.

The Ki Pro Mini is a 10-bit recorder. However, the Panasonic AF101 that I was using it with only outputs 8-bit via its HD/SDI output, so the AF101’s 8-bit signal is basically wrapped in the Ki Pro Mini’s 10-bit recording codec. The Ki Pro Mini also has HD/SD-SDI outputs that you can use to feed an external monitor on set. It also has two professional balanced analogue XLR audio inputs with nice high quality pre-amps guaranteeing superb audio if you decide not to use the audio coming in from the camcorder’s HD/SDI output signal. Certain other digital recorder manufactures skimp on the pre-amps thus giving poor quality audio; not the Ki Pro Mini.

Typically I would suspect that most of us will simply record the audio via the camcorder’s mic, be it built in, rifle mic mounted on the camcorder’s mic holder, or a lavaliere wireless mic plugged into one of the camcorder’s XLR inputs. This audio is embedded in the signal coming out of the camcorder’s HD/SDI output and is then in turn recorded to the CF card in the Ki Pro Mini along with the picture. Audio recorded this way is 24-bit SDI embedded 8 channel, 48kHz. Using the HDMI input is 2-channel audio.

ki pro mini

However, the Ki Pro Mini also has two professional balanced XLR audio inputs along with two audio recording level dials for Left and Right channels that can be pushed in safely out of the way after setting; along with mic, line and phantom power. Obviously there is a headphone jack and digital LED recording meters on the Ki Pro Mini to allow you to monitor your audio levels. But why would you want to use these I hear you ask. The answer to this is quite simple “Pre-Amps”. The chances are that the pre-amps built into your camcorder are not top-notch quality hence your audio could be lacking in quality. The Ki Pro Mini has superb quality audio pre-amps so depending on what you are shooting, and for what final application, you might want to consider plugging your microphones into the Ki Pro Mini directly instead of via your camcorder, especially if shooting anything for broadcast. Recording audio this way on the Ki Pro Mini is 24-bit A/D 2-channel balanced 48kHz. Check out the quality of the pre-amps built into your camcorder. If it is something along the lines of an EX1 or AF101 the pre-amps will almost certainly be budget, which could cause hiss, electrical hum and noise and other audio quality issues. Do some tests yourself or research it a little. You can do a simple test by recording ‘room tone’ with the recording levels set quite high. Record room tone to the camcorder, then plug your mic directly into the Ki Pro Mini and make the same recording at a similar recording level. Then in post-production open both the audio sections of the recording in a music editor such as Soundtrack Pro or Logic on the Mac, or Pro Tools or similar and listen for audio imperfections via your audio monitors at relatively high volumes. I’m something of an audio connoisseur so I like my audio to be top notch.

Currently there are only three cards that are 100% reliable (visit www.aja.com for updates on this). One of them is the SanDisk Extreme Pro cards. I use two 64GB ones that cost around £450 each. I tried Lexar but they have a flaw due to the way Lexar write their cards; the Ki Pro Mini wants to format the Lexar cards every time you turn it on i.e. deleting your footage; no good. So stick with SanDisk, or keep on eye on the AJA website for updates on which CF cards work.

The Ki Pro Mini has two CF card slots and not forgetting the silly scientific technical part about formatting etc i.e. after the card has gone through its HFS formatting the 64GB capacity drops to 63.87GB and after the 10% free space allocation system (which is done to ensure consistent recording behaviour across the disk for reliable performance) it drops to 57.48GB. So with that out of the way, the recording time for a single 64GB card is as follows:

422 PX (proxy) 45Mbps = 158 minutes
422 LT 100Mbps = 74 minutes
422 SQ (standard quality) 140Mbps = 50 minutes
422 HQ (high quality) 220Mpbs = 34 minutes

The above recording times include 2 channels of 24-bit 48KHz audio. Also, if you have two x 64GB cards in the Ki Pro Mini these recording times are doubled, but remember when card A is full, recording won’t automatically switch to card B; this has to be done manually by pressing the ‘Slot’ button.

All of the buttons on the front of the Ki Pro Mini flash at 15% remaining capacity with a "WARNING Media Low" prompt also appearing on the Ki Pro Mini UI screen to warn you that the card is nearly full. AJA typically recommend users swap out media at this point to avoid missing an upcoming take. At 10%, the "WARNING Media Full" appears and again all of the backlit buttons flash several times.

The AJA DataCalc app on iTunes is a useful tool for those wanting a portable storage calculator. I downloaded this free app for my iPhone and it is very useful.

If you want to record to broadcast standard as set out by the BBC’s requirement you would set the Ki Pro Mini to record in the ProRes 422 LT 100Mbps and this would give you 148 minutes of recording time.

ki pro mini sandisk

ki pro mini faceUnfortunately the Ki Pro Mini has no time-lapse feature. But who cares, to be perfectly honest I would recommend buying a DSLR for time-lapse shots anyway as a DSLR offers so much more in operability and image quality for time-lapse simply because it is taking a series of stills photographs at much higher resolution. If you have a decent DSLR you can be recording 4K time-lapse shots. Simply import your stills shots into your timeline as single frames.

Also, the Ki Pro Mini does not work with the VFR (Variable Frame Rate) mode on the Panasonic AF101 camcorder that I’m using here due to the unique VFR output on this camcorder. This is no fault of AJA and the Ki Pro Mini, it is due to the lack of appropriate signals from the AF101 itself. If you own an AF101 and the Ki Pro Mini (or any other external 4:2:2 recorder), use the external recorder for your regular shooting, then use the internal camera recorder for your VFR shots; simple.

You will already have figured out by now that the Ki Pro Mini records to Apple’s ProRes codec natively. A bit of history - AJA helped Apple establish ProRes as a legitimate intermediary codec for lens to post completion. Now workflows have grown beyond the FCP realm and include Avid with support for ProRes through their AMA and Autodesk with direct import of ProRes files, allowing Ki Pro Mini users to work with their NLE of choice. The advantage of this is that if you edit with Final Cut Pro or Avid you simply remove the CF cards from the Ki Pro Mini and pop them into a CF card reader, pop that into the USB socket on your Mac or PC and drag-and-drop them onto your hard drive. From there simply import the files (which are .mov) directly into Final Cut Pro or Avid; no transcoding necessary as they are already in the correct ProRes .mov file format.

All Apple ProRes codecs are frame-independent, or “intra-frame” codecs, meaning that each frame is encoded and decoded independently of any other frame. This technique provides the greatest editing performance and flexibility.

Here is a list of the recording quality options. They can be found under the ‘Media’ option in the menu of the Ki Pro Mini. Go to Media, then menu 14.1 Encode Type. There you will find the following recording quality options.

Apple ProRes 422 HQ (High Quality) 220Mbps
Apple ProRes 422 SQ (Standard Quality) 140Mbps
Apple ProRes LT (I call this BBC HD Quality) 100Mbps
Apple ProRes PX (Proxy) 45Mbps

NOTE: Even though the above recording options have been aptly named by Apple, and AJA retain these same names in the Ki Pro Mini menu i.e. HQ, SQ, LT, PX, it is important to remember that the HQ setting is not necessarily better quality than say the LT setting. Some operators will always use the HQ setting thinking that it will give better images than the LT; not so. It’s important to know that Apple ProRes is a full raster Variable Bit Rate codec (VBR), which means that the Mbps shown are upper limits; actual throughput per frame will vary. Thus a simple scene would use no more bandwidth and look exactly the same whether you choose SQ or HQ for instance. Another example is, if you have the Ki Pro Mini set to it’s PX 45Mbps quality setting, the 45Mbps is a maximum rate, for footage that has little or no movement the bitrate might drop down to 30Mbps. This does not mean the image quality drops, it simply means the codec does not need the amount of allocated Mbps for scenes with less movement.

I personally will be using the LT setting a lot of the time for this very reason. I call this setting the BBC HD setting, why? Because as I’ve already mentioned, the BBC specify a ‘MINIMUM’ recording bitrate of 50Mbps (long GOP) and as the only setting the Ki Pro Mini offers that is lower than this is 45Mbps (too low for BBC HD, especially in this IntraFrame codec) the LT is the one to go for as it is the IntraFrame equivalent of the 50Mbps Long GOP codec.

nigel cooper with ki pro mini

The Ki Pro Mini sports an Ethernet connection that can be triggered remotely via any web browser, this means the Ki Pro Mini can be operated via an iPad or iPhone. Although the Ki Pro has a wireless chip included in its design, the Ki Pro Mini does not – meaning it supports a wired Ethernet connection. So if you include a wireless connector to your wired network, you then would be able to control the Ki Pro Mini by utilizing any web browser on any platform, including the iPad and iPhone.

The Ki Pro Mini sells for a street price of approximately £1,400 (in the UK) plus vat. But remember, you’ll need to buy two fast CF cards, a battery system to power it (V-lock or Anton Bauer), an AJA mounting plate (probably two, one to mount the battery plate to and one to mount it to the camcorder) and some sort of mounting device to either mount it to your camcorder, or tripod. The Ki Pro Mini is a lot cheaper than a lot of digital recorders out there, even after buying the add-ons. And some of the cheaper alternatives out there don’t have quite the functionality, easy of use and build quality of the Ki Pro Mini. For me, the Ki Pro Mini is a superb balance of high quality build and stunning recording quality and options.

The Ki Pro Mini records in both HD and SD. You can also record to camcorder and Ki Pro Mini at the same time. Actually, you need an SD card (SD/HC or SD/XD) in the AF101 to be allow you to press the camcorder’s record button, which in turn triggers the Ki Pro Mini to record to its CF cards. The AF101’s record button won’t work if there is no media in the camcorder; it comes up with a warning on the display telling you to put a card in. From what I can gather, there is no solid-state camcorder in the world that will allow you to initiate recording, unless you have a card in it. The only way you can record with the Ki Pro Mini with no media in the AF1010 is to simply press the record button on the Ki Pro Mini itself; easy. So basically, you have to record to the camcorder’s card and the Ki Pro Mini at the same time. The Ki Pro Mini takes its recording cue from the timecode signal that comes out of the camcorder’s HD/SDI output. But you have to set the timecode to Rec Run to allow this to happen. This way, each time the camcorder’s record button is pressed to start and then pressed to stop the Rec Run timecode starts and stops; the Key Pro Mini starts recording when it sees timecode moving, then it stops recording when the timecode stops; clever. However, you can insert a small capacity card into the camcorder, and set the camcorder’s recording quality to the lowest one to allow tons of recording time on the card so you don’t have to worry about changing it i.e. you are simply using it as a timecode generator for the Ki Pro Mini. However, you might want to record to SD/HC card in camera and to the Ki Pro Mini at the same time so you have a back up copy to give the client on set right there; you have a choice.

ki pro mini with cards

Another important thing to remember if shooting with the AF101 (and some other camcorders) you have to set the OSD (On Screen Display) in the menus to OFF, otherwise you will get the A/V display readings recorded onto your footage, which will ruin it; obviously.

Regarding powering the Ki Pro Mini, I power mine using an IDX V-lock battery with the IDX V-Lock plate, the latter simply screws directly onto the AJA side plate (AJA call this a cheese grater as that is what it looks like with all its pre-drilled screw holes). The AJA mounting plate also facilitates an Anton Bauer system if you don’t use the V-mount type; your choice.

Regarding mounting the Ki Pro Mini. You can mount it to a hot or cold shoe on your camcorder via a cold shoe adaptor, or onto the tripod, or how I have done it here. I have Chrosziel matte box rails that come out of the back of the camera, as well as the front. This allows me to fix devices such as the Ki Pro Mini at the back of the AF101. I really like it this way because if I have a long heavy lens on the AF101, the Ki Pro Mini at the back makes balancing the camcorder on the tripod a breeze; also it looks much cooler.

ki pro mini with cards

There are other digital recorders out there. The one most of you will know is the NanoFlash made by Convergent Design. The NanoFlash has been around for a good few years now whereas the Ki Pro Mini is brand new to market in 2011. The fact is the NanoFlash is now getting a bit long in the tooth. At £2,650 plus vat, it is more expensive than the Ki Pro Mini; the Ki Pro Mini costs just £1,400 plus vat; £1,250 cheaper. And the Ki Pro Mini is bang up-to-date compared to the NanoFlash. For a start the Ki Pro Mini is 10-bit, whereas the NanoFlash is only 8-bit. Also, the NanoFlash does have a rather ‘unfinished’ look and feel about it. The Ki Pro Mini looks like a very sleek and well-finished product indeed. However, Convergent Design are bringing out new products all the time, the most recent is their Gemini recorder, costing approximately £4,000 plus vat. There are other more competitively priced products out there also, such as the Ninja (£625 plus vat) and Samurai (£925 plus vat) made by Atomos. There is also the Cinedeck Extreme made by Cineform costing approximately £8,000 plus vat and it is similar to the Samurai with a 7” screen. Sound devices also make the Pix; models 220 and 240 costing around £2,000 and £2,500 and recording in Apple ProRes format and 10-bit. But for now, the AJA Ki Pro Mini is definitely my personal favourite due to build quality, image quality, usability, functionality and price.

SanDisk 64GB Extreme Pro CF cards - £450 each
Power Tap to 4-Pin XLR power cable - £35
AJA Universal Mounting Plate for Ki Pro Mini - £75


Recording Formats
Apple ProRes 422 HQ (High Quality) 220Mbps
Apple ProRes 422 SQ (Standard Quality) 140Mbps
Apple ProRes LT (I call this BBC HD Quality) 100Mbps
Apple ProRes PX (Proxy) 45Mbps

HD/SD-SDI w/24-bit Embedded Audio: BNC (x1) HDMI w/24-bit Embedded Audio: SMPTE-259/292/296 (x1) Analog Line/Mic Audio: XLR 24-bit A/D (x2 Output) Ethernet: RJ-45 (x1) Timecode: BNC (x1 Input) Headphones: 3.5mm Mini Jack (x1 Output) LANC Loop (x2)

Camera Compatibility: Any SDI/HDMI-capable Camera Media Compatibility: Compact Flash Cards Media Card Slots: (2) Compact Flash Power Requirements: 100-240VAC Power Consumption: 12VDC Dimensions (WxHxD): 1.8 x 5.4 x 3.5" (4.6 x 13.7 x 8.9 cm) Weight: 1.26 lbs (0.57kg)

Finally, let’s not forget that AJA have a serious reputation for making extremely good kit. They make superb i/o systems for edit suites and other superb devices. The Ki Pro Mini continues in AJA’s quality arena.

©2011 Nigel Cooper

Company: AJA
Product: Digital Video Recorder
Model: Ki Pro Mini
Website: http://www.aja.com
Price: £1450.00
Reviewed by: Nigel Cooper
Review Date: 14-06-2011
Pros: Compact design, build quality, easy to use, lightweight, professional image quality, 10-bit, choice of Apple ProRes codecs.
Cons: Doesn’t automatically switch card slots when card A becomes full. Cards can get quite warm. No time-lapse feature.

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